Vegetarian and vegan diets have increased worldwide in the last decades, according to the knowledge that they might prevent coronary heart disease, cancer, and type 2 diabetes. Althought plant-based diets are at risk of nutritional deficiencies such as proteins, iron, vitamin D, calcium, iodine, omega-3, and vitamin B12, the available evidence shows that well planned vegetarian and vegan diets may be considered safe during pregnancy and lactation, but they require a strong awareness for a balanced intake of key nutrients. A review of the scientific literature in this field was performed, focusing specifically on observational studies in humans, in order to investigate protective effects elicited by maternal diets enriched in plant-derived foods and possible unfavorable outcomes related to micronutrients deficiencies and their impact on fetal development. A design of pregestational nutrition intervention is required in order to avoid maternal undernutrition and consequent impaired fetal growth. Pregnancy requires an increased intake of macro and micronutrients and balanced diet. For that, it offers a critical window of opportunity to acquire dietetic habits that are beneficial for fetal healthy [ 2 ]. The percentage of vegetarians and vegans in the general population has increased over the last years partly due to evidence that vegetarianism is linked to improved health. Thus, cohort data have shown that low-fat diets enriched with fruit, vegetables, and fiber can lead to a reduction of risk factors for coronary heart diseases, a better lipid profile [ 4 ], lower body mass index BMI [ 5 ], and lower blood pressure [ 6 ]. In addition vegetarian diets appear to prevent cancer and type 2 diabetes [ 7, 8 ].
Seaweed and tempeh are generally not reliable sources of vitamin B Effect of vegetarian diets on zinc status: A systematic review and meta-analysis of studies in humans. Ho-Pham L. Charts listed in these guidelines are useful for substituting beans, tofu, nuts, eggs, and seeds for meats, and include alternative food sources for calcium if diet and dairy products are rejected [ 3, 41 good. Also protein concentration in the juicing diet plan milk does not vary in relation to maternal intake of vegetal or animal proteins [ ]. The Dietitian’s Vegetarian to Vegetarian Diets. Ideally, low-oxalate foods high bioavailability, such as broccoli pregnancy bokchoi, must be preferred.
Four multiethnic birth cohorts in Canada the NutriGen Alliance involving pairs of full-term neonates and mothers assessed dietary patterns by FFQ. Received Jan 30; Accepted Mar 1. Muktabhant B. An increased risk of hypospadias has been associated to vegetarian or vegan diet during pregnancy, based in the increased intake of phytoestrogens. Dietary vitamin B12 intake, serum levels of vitamin B12, and plasma total homocysteine concentrations were measured once in each trimester. Elsori D. Here we discuss the published evidence of the effect of plant food diets on maternal nutritional profile. Assaf et al. Larsson C. Iodine, Magnesium Vegetarian or vegan diets may result in low iodine intake because the main dietary sources of iodine are meat, fish, and dairy products, but iodine in the salt could avoid the risk of deficiency [ 92 ].